Exode (NAB) 18

Jethro's Advice

18 1 Now Moses' father-in-law Jethro, the priest of Midian, heard of all that God had done for Moses and for his people Israel: how the LORD had brought Israel out of Egypt.2 So his father-in-law Jethro took along Zipporah, Moses' wife, whom Moses had sent back to him,3 and her two sons. One of these was called Gershom; for he said, "I am a stranger in a foreign land."4 The other was called Eliezer; for he said, "My father's God is my helper; he has rescued me from Pharaoh's sword."5 Together with Moses' wife and sons, then, his father-in-law Jethro came to him in the desert where he was encamped near the mountain of God,6 and he sent word to Moses, "I, Jethro, your father-in-law, am coming to you, along with your wife and her two sons."7 Moses went out to meet his father-in-law, bowed down before him, and kissed him. Having greeted each other, they went into the tent.8 Moses then told his father-in-law of all that the LORD had done to Pharaoh and the Egyptians for the sake of Israel, and of all the hardships they had had to endure on their journey, and how the LORD had come to their rescue.9 Jethro rejoiced over all the goodness that the LORD had shown Israel in rescuing them from the hands of the Egyptians.10 "Blessed be the LORD," he said, "who has rescued his people from the hands of Pharaoh and the Egyptians.11 Now I know that the LORD is a deity great beyond any other; for he took occasion of their being dealt with insolently to deliver the people from the power of the Egyptians."12 Then Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses, brought a holocaust and other sacrifices to God, and Aaron came with all the elders of Israel to participate with Moses' father-in-law in the meal before God.13 The next day Moses sat in judgment for the people, who waited about him from morning until evening.14 When his father-in-law saw all that he was doing for the people, he inquired, "What sort of thing is this that you are doing for the people? Why do you sit alone while all the people have to stand about you from morning till evening?"15 Moses answered his father-in-law, "The people come to me to consult God.16 Whenever they have a disagreement, they come to me to have me settle the matter between them and make known to them God's decisions and regulations."17 "You are not acting wisely," his father-in-law replied.18 "You will surely wear yourself out, and not only yourself but also these people with you. The task is too heavy for you; you cannot do it alone.19 Now, listen to me, and I will give you some advice, that God may be with you. Act as the people's representative before God, bringing to him whatever they have to say.20 Enlighten them in regard to the decisions and regulations, showing them how they are to live and what they are to do.21 But you should also look among all the people for able and God-fearing men, trustworthy men who hate dishonest gain, and set them as officers over groups of thousands, of hundreds, of fifties, and of tens.22 Let these men render decisions for the people in all ordinary cases. More important cases they should refer to you, but all the lesser cases they can settle themselves. Thus, your burden will be lightened, since they will bear it with you.23 If you do this, when God gives you orders you will be able to stand the strain, and all these people will go home satisfied."24 Moses followed the advice of his father-in-law and did all that he had suggested.25 He picked out able men from all Israel and put them in charge of the people as officers over groups of thousands, of hundreds, of fifties, and of tens.26 They rendered decisions for the people in all ordinary cases. The more difficult cases they referred to Moses, but all the lesser cases they settled themselves.27 Then Moses bade farewell to his father-in-law, who went off to his own country.

The Israelites Reach Mount Sinai

19 1 In the third month after their departure from the land of Egypt, on its first day, the Israelites came to the desert of Sinai.2 After the journey from Rephidim to the desert of Sinai, they pitched camp. While Israel was encamped here in front of the mountain,
Moses went up the mountain to God. Then the LORD called to him and said, "Thus shall you say to the house of Jacob;4 tell the Israelites: You have seen for yourselves how I treated the Egyptians and how I bore you up on eagle wings and brought you here to myself.5 Therefore, if you hearken to my voice and keep my covenant, you shall be my special possession, dearer to me than all other people, though all the earth is mine.6 You shall be to me a kingdom of priests, a holy nation. That is what you must tell the Israelites." 7 So Moses went and summoned the elders of the people. When he set before them all that the LORD had ordered him to tell them,8 the people all answered together, "Everything the LORD has said, we will do." Then Moses brought back to the LORD the response of the people.

The People Consecrated

9 The LORD also told him, "I am coming to you in a dense cloud, so that when the people hear me speaking with you, they may always have faith in you also." When Moses, then, had reported to the LORD the response of the people,10 the LORD added, "Go to the people and have them sanctify themselves today and tomorrow. Make them wash their garments11 and be ready for the third day; for on the third day the LORD will come down on Mount Sinai before the eyes of all the people.12 Set limits for the people all around the mountain, and tell them: Take care not to go up the mountain, or even to touch its base. If anyone touches the mountain, he must be put to death.13 No hand shall touch him; he must be stoned to death or killed with arrows. Such a one, man or beast, must not be allowed to live. Only when the ram's horn resounds may they go up to the mountain."14 Then Moses came down from the mountain to the people and had them sanctify themselves and wash their garments.15 He warned them, "Be ready for the third day. Have no intercourse with any woman."
On the morning of the third day there were peals of thunder and lightning, and a heavy cloud over the mountain, and a very loud trumpet blast, so that all the people in the camp trembled.17 But Moses led the people out of the camp to meet God, and they stationed themselves at the foot of the mountain.18 Mount Sinai was all wrapped in smoke, for the LORD came down upon it in fire. The smoke rose from it as though from a furnace, and the whole mountain trembled violently.19 The trumpet blast grew louder and louder, while Moses was speaking and God answering him with thunder.20 When the LORD came down to the top of Mount Sinai, he summoned Moses to the top of the mountain, and Moses went up to him.21 Then the LORD told Moses, "Go down and warn the people not to break through toward the LORD in order to see him; otherwise many of them will be struck down.22 The priests, too, who approach the LORD must sanctify themselves; else he will vent his anger upon them."23 Moses said to the LORD, "The people cannot go up to Mount Sinai, for you yourself warned us to set limits around the mountain to make it sacred."24 The LORD repeated, "Go down now! Then come up again along with Aaron. But the priests and the people must not break through to come up to the LORD; else he will vent his anger upon them."25 So Moses went down to the people and told them this.

The Ten Commandments

20 1 Then God delivered all these commandments: 2 "I, the LORD, am your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, that place of slavery.3 You shall not have other gods besides me.4 You shall not carve idols for yourselves in the shape of anything in the sky above or on the earth below or in the waters beneath the earth;5 you shall not bow down before them or worship them. For I, the LORD, your God, am a jealous God, inflicting punishment for their fathers' wickedness on the children of those who hate me, down to the third and fourth generation; 6 but bestowing mercy down to the thousandth generation, on the children of those who love me and keep my commandments.7 "You shall not take the name of the LORD, your God, in vain. For the LORD will not leave unpunished him who takes his name in vain.8 "Remember to keep holy the sabbath day.9 Six days you may labor and do all your work,10 but the seventh day is the sabbath of the LORD, your God. No work may be done then either by you, or your son or daughter, or your male or female slave, or your beast, or by the alien who lives with you.11 In six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, the sea and all that is in them; but on the seventh day he rested. That is why the LORD has blessed the sabbath day and made it holy.12 "Honor your father and your mother, that you may have a long life in the land which the LORD, your God, is giving you.13 "You shall not kill.14 "You shall not commit adultery.15 "You shall not steal.16 "You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.17 "You shall not covet your neighbor's house. You shall not covet your neighbor's wife, nor his male or female slave, nor his ox or ass, nor anything else that belongs to him."18 When the people witnessed the thunder and lightning, the trumpet blast and the mountain smoking, they all feared and trembled. So they took up a position much farther away19 and said to Moses, "You speak to us, and we will listen; but let not God speak to us, or we shall die."20 Moses answered the people, "Do not be afraid, for God has come to you only to test you and put his fear upon you, lest you should sin."21 Still the people remained at a distance, while Moses approached the cloud where God was.

The Law concerning the Altar

22 The LORD told Moses, "Thus shall you speak to the Israelites: You have seen for yourselves that I have spoken to you from heaven.23 Do not make anything to rank with me; neither gods of silver nor gods of gold shall you make for yourselves.24 "An altar of earth you shall make for me, and upon it you shall sacrifice your holocausts and peace offerings, your sheep and your oxen. In whatever place I choose for the remembrance of my name I will come to you and bless you. 25 If you make an altar of stone for me, do not build it of cut stone, for by putting a tool to it you desecrate it.26 You shall not go up by steps to my altar, on which you must not be indecently uncovered.

The Law concerning Slaves

21 1 "These are the rules you shall lay before them. 2 When you purchase a Hebrew slave, he is to serve you for six years, but in the seventh year he shall be given his freedom without cost.3 If he comes into service alone, he shall leave alone; if he comes with a wife, his wife shall leave with him.4 But if his master gives him a wife and she bears him sons or daughters, the woman and her children shall remain the master's property and the man shall leave alone.5 If, however, the slave declares, 'I am devoted to my master and my wife and children; I will not go free,'6 his master shall bring him to God and there, at the door or doorpost, he shall pierce his ear with an awl, thus keeping him as his slave forever. 7 "When a man sells his daughter as a slave, she shall not go free as male slaves do.8 But if her master, who had destined her for himself, dislikes her, he shall let her be redeemed. He has no right to sell her to a foreigner, since he has broken faith with her. 9 If he destines her for his son, he shall treat her like a daughter.10 If he takes another wife, he shall not withhold her food, her clothing, or her conjugal rights.11 If he does not grant her these three things, she shall be given her freedom absolutely, without cost to her.

The Law concerning Violence

12 "Whoever strikes a man a mortal blow must be put to death.13 He, however, who did not hunt a man down, but caused his death by an act of God, may flee to a place which I will set apart for this purpose.14 But when a man kills another after maliciously scheming to do so, you must take him even from my altar and put him to death.15 Whoever strikes his father or mother shall be put to death.16 "A kidnaper, whether he sells his victim or still has him when caught, shall be put to death.17 "Whoever curses his father or mother shall be put to death.
"When men quarrel and one strikes the other with a stone or with his fist, not mortally, but enough to put him in bed,19 the one who struck the blow shall be acquitted, provided the other can get up and walk around with the help of his staff. Still, he must compensate him for his enforced idleness and provide for his complete cure.20 "When a man strikes his male or female slave with a rod so hard that the slave dies under his hand, he shall be punished.21 If, however, the slave survives for a day or two, he is not to be punished, since the slave is his own property.22 "When men have a fight and hurt a pregnant woman, so that she suffers a miscarriage, but no further injury, the guilty one shall be fined as much as the woman's husband demands of him, and he shall pay in the presence of the judges.23 But if injury ensues, you shall give life for life, 24 eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot,25 burn for burn, wound for wound, stripe for stripe.26 "When a man strikes his male or female slave in the eye and destroys the use of the eye, he shall let the slave go free in compensation for the eye.27 If he knocks out a tooth of his male or female slave, he shall let the slave go free in compensation for the tooth.

Laws concerning Property

28 "When an ox gores a man or a woman to death, the ox must be stoned; its flesh may not be eaten. The owner of the ox, however, shall go unpunished.29 But if an ox was previously in the habit of goring people and its owner, though warned, would not keep it in; should it then kill a man or a woman, not only must the ox be stoned, but its owner also must be put to death.30 If, however, a fine is imposed on him, he must pay in ransom for his life whatever amount is imposed on him.31 This law applies if it is a boy or a girl that the ox gores.32 But if it is a male or a female slave that it gores, he must pay the owner of the slave thirty shekels of silver, and the ox must be stoned.33 "When a man uncovers or digs a cistern and does not cover it over again, should an ox or an ass fall into it,34 the owner of the cistern must make good by restoring the value of the animal to its owner; the dead animal, however, he may keep.35 "When one man's ox hurts another's ox so badly that it dies, they shall sell the live ox and divide this money as well as the dead animal equally between them.36 But if it was known that the ox was previously in the habit of goring and its owner would not keep it in, he must make full restitution, an ox for an ox; but the dead animal he may keep. (v 37) "When a man steals an ox or a sheep and slaughters or sells it, he shall restore five oxen for the one ox, and four sheep for the one sheep.

Laws of Restitution

22 1 "(If a thief is caught in the act of housebreaking and beaten to death, there is no bloodguilt involved. 2 But if after sunrise he is thus beaten, there is bloodguilt.) He must make full restitution. If he has nothing, he shall be sold to pay for his theft.3 If what he stole is found alive in his possession, be it an ox, an ass or a sheep, he shall restore two animals for each one stolen.
"When a man is burning over a field or a vineyard, if he lets the fire spread so that it burns in another's field, he must make restitution with the best produce of his own field or vineyard. 5 If the fire spreads further, and catches on to thorn bushes, so that shocked grain or standing grain or the field itself is burned up, the one who started the fire must make full restitution.
"When a man gives money or an article to another for safekeeping and it is stolen from the latter's house, the thief, if caught, must make twofold restitution.7 If the thief is not caught, the owner of the house shall be brought to God, to swear that he himself did not lay hands on his neighbor's property. 8 In every question of dishonest appropriation, whether it be about an ox, or an ass, or a sheep, or a garment, or anything else that has disappeared, where another claims that the thing is his, both parties shall present their case before God; the one whom God convicts must make twofold restitution to the other.9 "When a man gives an ass, or an ox, or a sheep, or any other animal to another for safekeeping, if it dies, or is maimed or snatched away, without anyone witnessing the fact,10 the custodian shall swear by the LORD that he did not lay hands on his neighbor's property; the owner must accept the oath, and no restitution is to be made.11 But if the custodian is really guilty of theft, he must make restitution to the owner.12 If it has been killed by a wild beast, let him bring it as evidence, and he need not make restitution for the mangled animal.13 "When a man borrows an animal from his neighbor, if it is maimed or dies while the owner is not present, the man must make restitution.14 But if the owner is present, he need not make restitution. If it was hired, this was covered by the price of its hire.15 "When a man seduces a virgin who is not betrothed, and lies with her, he shall pay her marriage price and marry her.

Social and Religious Laws

16 If her father refuses to give her to him, he must still pay him the customary marriage price for virgins.
"You shall not let a sorceress live.18 "Anyone who lies with an animal shall be put to death.19 "Whoever sacrifices to any god, except to the LORD alone, shall be doomed.20 "You shall not molest or oppress an alien, for you were once aliens yourselves in the land of Egypt.21 You shall not wrong any widow or orphan.22 If ever you wrong them and they cry out to me, I will surely hear their cry.23 My wrath will flare up, and I will kill you with the sword; then your own wives will be widows, and your children orphans.24 "If you lend money to one of your poor neighbors among my people, you shall not act like an extortioner toward him by demanding interest from him.25 If you take your neighbor's cloak as a pledge, you shall return it to him before sunset;26 for this cloak of his is the only covering he has for his body. What else has he to sleep in? If he cries out to me, I will hear him; for I am compassionate.27 "You shall not revile God, nor curse a prince of your people. 28 "You shall not delay the offering of your harvest and your press. You shall give me the first-born of your sons.29 You must do the same with your oxen and your sheep; for seven days the firstling may stay with its mother, but on the eighth day you must give it to me.30 "You shall be men sacred to me. Flesh torn to pieces in the field you shall not eat; throw it to the dogs.

Justice for All

23 1 "You shall not repeat a false report. Do not join the wicked in putting your hand, as an unjust witness, upon anyone.2 Neither shall you allege the example of the many as an excuse for doing wrong, nor shall you, when testifying in a lawsuit, side with the many in perverting justice.3 You shall not favor a poor man in his lawsuit.4 "When you come upon your enemy's ox or ass going astray, see to it that it is returned to him.5 When you notice the ass of one who hates you lying prostrate under its burden, by no means desert him; help him, rather, to raise it up.6 "You shall not deny one of your needy fellow men his rights in his lawsuit.7 You shall keep away from anything dishonest. The innocent and the just you shall not put to death, nor shall you acquit the guilty.8 Never take a bribe, for a bribe blinds even the most clear-sighted and twists the words even of the just.9 You shall not oppress an alien; you well know how it feels to be an alien, since you were once aliens yourselves in the land of Egypt.

Sabbatical Year and Sabbath

10 "For six years you may sow your land and gather in its produce.11 But the seventh year you shall let the land lie untilled and unharvested, that the poor among you may eat of it and the beasts of the field may eat what the poor leave. So also shall you do in regard to your vineyard and your olive grove.12 "For six days you may do your work, but on the seventh day you must rest, that your ox and your ass may also have rest, and that the son of your maidservant and the alien may be refreshed.13 Give heed to all that I have told you. "Never mention the name of any other god; it shall not be heard from your lips.

The Annual Festivals

14 "Three times a year you shall celebrate a pilgrim feast to me. 15 You shall keep the feast of Unleavened Bread. As I have commanded you, you must eat unleavened bread for seven days at the prescribed time in the month of Abib, for it was then that you came out of Egypt. No one shall appear before me empty-handed. 16 You shall also keep the feast of the grain harvest with the first of the crop that you have sown in the field; and finally, the feast at the fruit harvest at the end of the year, when you gather in the produce from the fields.17 Thrice a year shall all your men appear before the Lord GOD.18 "You shall not offer the blood of my sacrifice with leavened bread; nor shall the fat of my feast be kept overnight till the next day.19 The choicest first fruits of your soil you shall bring to the house of the LORD, your God. "You shall not boil a kid in its mother's milk.

The Conquest of Canaan Promised

20 "See, I am sending an angel before you, to guard you on the way and bring you to the place I have prepared.21 Be attentive to him and heed his voice. Do not rebel against him, for he will not forgive your sin. My authority resides in him. 22 If you heed his voice and carry out all I tell you, I will be an enemy to your enemies and a foe to your foes.23 "My angel will go before you and bring you to the Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, Canaanites, Hivites and Jebusites; and I will wipe them out.24 Therefore, you shall not bow down in worship before their gods, nor shall you make anything like them; rather, you must demolish them and smash their sacred pillars. 25 The LORD, your God, you shall worship; then I will bless your food and drink, and I will remove all sickness from your midst;26 no woman in your land will be barren or miscarry; and I will give you a full span of life.27 "I will have the fear of me precede you, so that I will throw into panic every nation you reach. I will make all your enemies turn from you in flight,28 and ahead of you I will send hornets to drive the Hivites, Canaanites and Hittites out of your way. 29 But not in one year will I drive them all out before you; else the land will become so desolate that the wild beasts will multiply against you.30 Instead, I will drive them out little by little before you, until you have grown numerous enough to take possession of the land.31 I will set your boundaries from the Red Sea to the sea of the Philistines, and from the desert to the River; all who dwell in this land I will hand over to you to be driven out of your way. 32 You shall not make a covenant with them or their gods.33 They must not abide in your land, lest they make you sin against me by ensnaring you into worshiping their gods."

The Blood of the Covenant

24 1 Moses himself was told, "Come up to the LORD, you and Aaron, with Nadab, Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel. You shall all worship at some distance,2 but Moses alone is to come close to the LORD; the others shall not come too near, and the people shall not come up at all with Moses."3 When Moses came to the people and related all the words and ordinances of the LORD, they all answered with one voice, "We will do everything that the LORD has told us."4 Moses then wrote down all the words of the LORD and, rising early the next day, he erected at the foot of the mountain an altar and twelve pillars for the twelve tribes of Israel. 5 Then, having sent certain young men of the Israelites to offer holocausts and sacrifice young bulls as peace offerings to the LORD,6 Moses took half of the blood and put it in large bowls; the other half he splashed on the altar.7 Taking the book of the covenant, he read it aloud to the people, who answered, "All that the LORD has said, we will heed and do."8 Then he took the blood and sprinkled it on the people, saying, "This is the blood of the covenant which the LORD has made with you in accordance with all these words of his."

On the Mountain with God

9 Moses then went up with Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, and seventy elders of Israel,10 and they beheld the God of Israel. Under his feet there appeared to be sapphire tilework, as clear as the sky itself.11 Yet he did not smite these chosen Israelites. After gazing on God, they could still eat and drink.
The LORD said to Moses, "Come up to me on the mountain and, while you are there, I will give you the stone tablets on which I have written the commandments intended for their instruction."13 So Moses set out with Joshua, his aide, and went up to the mountain of God.14 The elders, however, had been told by him, "Wait here for us until we return to you. Aaron and Hur are staying with you. If anyone has a complaint, let him refer the matter to them."15 After Moses had gone up, a cloud covered the mountain.16 The glory of the LORD settled upon Mount Sinai. The cloud covered it for six days, and on the seventh day he called to Moses from the midst of the cloud.17 To the Israelites the glory of the LORD was seen as a consuming fire on the mountaintop.18 But Moses passed into the midst of the cloud as he went up on the mountain; and there he stayed for forty days and forty nights.

Offerings for the Tabernacle

25 1 This is what the LORD then said to Moses:2 "Tell the Israelites to take up a collection for me. From every man you shall accept the contribution that his heart prompts him to give me.3 These are the contributions you shall accept from them: gold, silver and bronze;4 violet, purple and scarlet yarn; fine linen and goat hair;5 rams' skins dyed red, and tahash skins; acacia wood; 6 oil for the light; spices for the anointing oil and for the fragrant incense;7 onyx stones and other gems for mounting on the ephod and the breastpiece.8 "They shall make a sanctuary for me, that I may dwell in their midst.9 This Dwelling and all its furnishings you shall make exactly according to the pattern that I will now show you.

The Ark of the Covenant

10 "You shall make an ark of acacia wood, two and a half cubits long, one and a half cubits wide, and one and a half cubits high.11 Plate it inside and outside with pure gold, and put a molding of gold around the top of it.12 Cast four gold rings and fasten them on the four supports of the ark, two rings on one side and two on the opposite side.13 Then make poles of acacia wood and plate them with gold.14 These poles you are to put through the rings on the sides of the ark, for carrying it;15 they must remain in the rings of the ark and never be withdrawn.16 In the ark you are to put the commandments which I will give you.17 "You shall then make a propitiatory of pure gold, two cubits and a half long, and one and a half cubits wide. 18 Make two cherubim of beaten gold for the two ends of the propitiatory, 19 fastening them so that one cherub springs direct from each end.20 The cherubim shall have their wings spread out above, covering the propitiatory with them; they shall be turned toward each other, but with their faces looking toward the propitiatory.21 This propitiatory you shall then place on top of the ark. In the ark itself you are to put the commandments which I will give you.22 There I will meet you and there, from above the propitiatory, between the two cherubim on the ark of the commandments, I will tell you all the commands that I wish you to give the Israelites.

The Table for the Bread of the Presence

23 "You shall also make a table of acacia wood, two cubits long, a cubit wide, and a cubit and a half high.24 Plate it with pure gold and make a molding of gold around it.25 Surround it with a frame, a handbreadth high, with a molding of gold around the frame. 26 You shall also make four rings of gold for it and fasten them at the four corners, one at each leg,27 on two opposite sides of the frame as holders for the poles to carry the table.28 These poles for carrying the table you shall make of acacia wood and plate with gold.29 Of pure gold you shall make its plates and cups, as well as its pitchers and bowls for pouring libations. 30 On the table you shall always keep showbread set before me.

The Lampstand

31 "You shall make a lampstand of pure beaten gold-its shaft and branches-with its cups and knobs and petals springing directly from it.32 Six branches are to extend from the sides of the lampstand, three branches on one side, and three on the other.33 On one branch there are to be three cups, shaped like almond blossoms, each with its knob and petals; on the opposite branch there are to be three cups, shaped like almond blossoms, each with its knob and petals; and so for the six branches that extend from the lampstand. 34 On the shaft there are to be four cups, shaped like almond blossoms, with their knobs and petals, 35 including a knob below each of the three pairs of branches that extend from the lampstand.36 Their knobs and branches shall so spring from it that the whole will form but a single piece of pure beaten gold.37 You shall then make seven lamps for it and so set up the lamps that they shed their light on the space in front of the lampstand. 38 These, as well as the trimming shears and trays, must be of pure gold. 39 Use a talent of pure gold for the lampstand and all its appurtenances.40 See that you make them according to the pattern shown you on the mountain.

The Tabernacle

26 1 "The Dwelling itself you shall make out of sheets woven of fine linen twined and of violet, purple and scarlet yarn, with cherubim embroidered on them. 2 The length of each shall be twenty-eight cubits, and the width four cubits; all the sheets shall be of the same size.3 Five of the sheets are to be sewed together, edge to edge; and the same for the other five.4 Make loops of violet yarn along the edge of the end sheet in one set, and the same along the edge of the end sheet in the other set.5 There are to be fifty loops along the edge of the end sheet in the first set, and fifty loops along the edge of the corresponding sheet in the second set, and so placed that the loops are directly opposite each other.6 Then make fifty clasps of gold, with which to join the two sets of sheets, so that the Dwelling forms one whole.7 "Also make sheets woven of goat hair, to be used as a tent covering over the Dwelling. 8 Eleven such sheets are to be made; the length of each shall be thirty cubits, and the width four cubits: all eleven sheets shall be of the same size.9 Sew five of the sheets, edge to edge, into one set, and the other six sheets into another set. Use the sixth sheet double at the front of the tent. 10 Make fifty loops along the edge of the end sheet in one set, and fifty loops along the edge of the end sheet in the second set.11 Also make fifty bronze clasps and put them into the loops, to join the tent into one whole.12 There will be an extra half sheet of tent covering, which shall be allowed to hang down over the rear of the Dwelling.13 Likewise, the sheets of the tent will have an extra cubit's length to be left hanging down on either side of the Dwelling to protect it.14 Over the tent itself you shall make a covering of rams' skins dyed red, and above that, a covering of tahash skins.

The Framework

15 "You shall make boards of acacia wood as walls for the Dwelling.16 The length of each board is to be ten cubits, and its width one and a half cubits.17 Each board shall have two arms that shall serve to fasten the boards in line. In this way all the boards of the Dwelling are to be made. 18 Set up the boards of the Dwelling as follows: twenty boards on the south side,19 with forty silver pedestals under the twenty boards, so that there are two pedestals under each board, at its two arms;20 twenty boards on the other side of the Dwelling, the north side,21 with their forty silver pedestals, two under each board;22 six boards for the rear of the Dwelling, to the west;23 and two boards for the corners at the rear of the Dwelling.24 These two shall be double at the bottom, and likewise double at the top, to the first ring. That is how both boards in the corners are to be made.25 Thus, there shall be in the rear eight boards, with their sixteen silver pedestals, two pedestals under each board.26 Also make bars of acacia wood: five for the boards on one side of the Dwelling,27 five for those on the other side, and five for those at the rear, toward the west.28 The center bar, at the middle of the boards, shall reach across from end to end.29 Plate the boards with gold, and make gold rings on them as holders for the bars, which are also to be plated with gold.30 You shall erect the Dwelling according to the pattern shown you on the mountain.

The Curtain

31 "You shall have a veil woven of violet, purple and scarlet yarn, and of fine linen twined, with cherubim embroidered on it.32 It is to be hung on four gold-plated columns of acacia wood, which shall have hooks of gold and shall rest on four silver pedestals. 33 Hang the veil from clasps. The ark of the commandments you shall bring inside, behind this veil which divides the holy place from the holy of holies.34 Set the propitiatory on the ark of the commandments in the holy of holies.35 "Outside the veil you shall place the table and the lampstand, the latter on the south side of the Dwelling, opposite the table, which is to be put on the north side.
For the entrance of the tent make a variegated curtain of violet, purple and scarlet yarn and of fine linen twined. 37 Make five columns of acacia wood for this curtain; have them plated with gold, with their hooks of gold; and cast five bronze pedestals for them.

The Altar of Burnt Offering

Exode (NAB) 18